Mesenteric Lymph Node - Lymphoma
Note that the surface of this lymph node looks like it is just about ready to burst out.
The surface is soft and bulging. Select the photo to reveal an enlarged image
Hypoproteinemia with Bowel edema
Cobblestones are round, smooth rocks once used to pave roads.
And actually, this segment of bowel is so bumpy it looks like it has been paved with cobblestones - so we say it has a cobblestoned surface.
If you don't see the cobblestoned lesions, select the image and arrows will point the areas out to you. An enlarged section is also available.
Johne's Disease - Ileum
Do you see the rippled, folded texture of the surface of this intestine? That's corrugation. Select the image to view an enlargement of this slide if you don't see it.
Like the corrugated cardboard found in the bottom of your Domino's pizza box, or the corrugated tin roof of that shack you lived in your junior year of college - this section of ileum has the pronounced rippling and distortion known as corrugation.
Acute Necrotic Ileocolitis - 2 month old Holstein
Ileocolitis is an inflammation of the ileum and the colon. The crusted surface of the intestine is composed of necrotic debris, degenerated inflammatory cells and serous fluid. It is similar to the "diphtheritic membrane" seen in other necrotic lesions.
A close-up of the crusted material can be seen by clicking on the image of the intestine.
Bovine Malignant Catarrhal Fever - Muzzle of a cow
This poor cow has a very painful looking sore. Notice that the skin looks sloughed-off and the wound looks raw and open. This is an eroded lesion.
An important element to notice, however, is that the erosion is restricted to the epidermis; the dermis and basement membrane are still intact. This is an important distinction between erosion and ulceration.
Erosion is a superficial or shallow ulceration.
Canine Pyogranulomatous Staphylococcus infection
A chronic inflammatory response to a Staph infection has occurred here.
Pus (pyo-) and granulomas (-granulomatous) have accumulated on the surface of the epicardium. Severe proliferative epicarditis is the resulting condition.
Believe it or not, this is a heart. The central globular and very granular portion of this photo is the heart and epicardium itself while the outer "peeled back" layer is the pericardium.
Granular means "marked by the presence of granules and grains". You should be able to see the granules all over the surface of the epicardium of the heart. If you can't quite see it, click on the photo to view an enlarged image.
End-stage Kidney - 5 y.o. Male Canine
By the time a kidney reaches the final stages of pyelonephritis, it has lost many nephrons and the surface has become pitted and irregular. The pits are areas that are sunken due to contraction of the fibrous connective tissue that has replaced the normal parenchyma.
Note the pitted surface of the kidney at left. Click on the image to view an enlargement.
Lethal Acrodermatitis - Bull Terrier dog
Lethal acrodermatitis is an inherited disease of Bull Terriers. Homozygous individuals have an undetermined defect in zinc metabolism that does not respond to zinc supplementation.
Affected dogs have lighter skin coats than normal, and develop dull, brittle coats and cracked, crusted skin by six weeks old.
Notice how uneven and bumpy and rough the paw looks.
Select the image to view a close-up of the paw.
Secondary infections are common and many dogs develop diarrhea and respiratory infections. Most dogs die by the age of seven months - hence the name: lethal acrodermatitis.
Membranous Glomerulonephritis in a Kidney
Look how nice and shiny and smooth this kidney is. Compare this to the previous slide which was rough. Quite a difference.
Atherosclerosis in a 6 y.o. Canine Heart
Arteriosclerosis is defined as chronic arterial wall change consisting of loss of elasticity or "hardening" and a narrowing of the diameter of the arterial lumen. Atherosclerosis is considered a form of arteriosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis occurs when the inner layers of the vessel (intima and media) accumulate deposits of lipid, lipophages and cholesterol. The thickening of the vessel can lead to arterial occlusion and infarcts. Stenotic lesions are most common and most severe in the coronary arteries.
The yellow striations seen on the heart above are atherosclerotic deposits in the coronary arteries.
Click on the heart to view a 50 K enlargement.
Side note for you detail oriented types: Interestingly, atherosclerosis has not been described in cats and is associated with hypothyroidism in dogs.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Equine Stomach
Horses are one of the few species that has squamous cells in the stomach, so this type of cancer is somewhat unique.
Technically, ulcerated refers to a "local defect or excavation of the epithelium of an organ or tissue through the basement membrane." What does that mean? It means that an ulceration is a deep lesion through several layers of tissue.
Ulcerated is subtly different from eroded, in that an ulceration is a lesion through the basement membrane and the the underlying dermis whereas an erosion is restricted to the superficial epidermis. Got it? In a nutshell, an ulceration goes deeper than an erosion.
Click on the image to view a truly revolting, magnified version of this lesion.
Do you know what your umbilicus is?
That's right! It's your belly-button. Lift up your shirt and take a peek at your belly-button. Or if people are watching you and looking at you funny, just wait until the next time you take a shower. Now look at the image on the left.
Doesn't this image look an awful lot like your belly-button (a.k.a. your umbilicus)?
Okay, at least doesn't it somewhat resemble your umbilicus?
Well, we think it does. Hence, this type of lesion is called umbilicated - marked by a depression resembling the umbilicus. Click on the image to view a magnified version of this lesion.
Skin Tag of a 10 year old Great Dane
No this is not a grey piece of broccoli. It's a skin tag that looks like a pedunculated wart. And as a matter of fact, verrucous means "wart-like". So a lesion (like this one) that looks like a wart is verrucous.
Skin tags often occur on the extremities and ventral thorax of older dogs. Click on the photo to view the enlarged image.