Physical Exam Minimize
In order to perform a complete physical exam, proper restraint is required (see Restraint). Observe the cow from a distance first.  Prior to restraint, reluctance to move, arched posture, abducted elbows, stilted gait, and teeth grinding are positive indications for pain.  In general, cattle are extremely stoic to pain, but occasionally cattle with acute pain may kick at their abdomen.  Examine the head for symmetry, and observe head position and any cranial nerve deficits.  Assess body condition from the rear and observe the abdomen for contour and distention.  It is equally important to obtain all the details of the case in hand by either asking questions or allowing the owner, manager, or farm staff  to contribute information.  When performing a physical examination a strict sequence of  procedures should be followed beginning on the left side of the cow.  To start your physical exam, click on the numbers in sequence, beginning with No. 1.
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