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Auscult Lungs Minimize
The assessment of abnormal lungs can be extremely difficult in the cow.   The reason for this is that they have a smaller area to auscult due to the reduced number of ribs and a steeper angle of the diaphragm.  The caudal border is the 11th rib.  Note the  area of auscultation that is outlined with tape in the picture to the left.  Caution:   Significant pathological lesions may be present without any abnormal lung sounds.    Observation of rate and effort is important during auscultation. Cattle normally have a costoabdominal effort.  Normal lung sounds are louder on inspiration than on expiration and are loudest in the ventral lung fields.  Consolidation in the lungs caused by pneumonia often results in large airways sounds in the ventral lung field.  Crackles and wheezes are abnormal lung sounds.  Deeper breaths can be induced by holding off the nostrils.  Palpate the tracheal to try and induce a cough.  The normal rate is 12 -36 bpm.

Normal lung sounds are louder on inspiration than on expiration and are loudest in the ventral lunch fields.  Consolidation in the lungs caused by pneumonia after results in large airways sounds in the ventral lung field.  Crackles and wheezes are abnormal lung sounds.  Deeper breaths can be induced by holding off the nostrils.  Palpate the trachea to try and induce a cough.


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